How to Increase Terpenes, Aroma and Flavor in Your Plants

Every grower wants to grow the most aromatic, flavorful and oil-filled plants that they can. Naturally, growers want to optimize their plants to reach their maximum genetic potential, boosting terpene production of each unique strain so its aromas, flavors and medicinal properties can shine.

Growing plants that produce all of the medicinal and aesthetic properties your looking for is the ultimate goal for most gardeners. Let's dig into how to increase terpenes, brix levels, flavinoids, aromas and flavors in your grow.

Before we jump straight into how to maximize terpene and organic oil production in your plants, let's define some of these terms so you can understand them well, and who knows, maybe impress your friends or significant other.

What is a Terpene?

Terpenes, also known as terpenoids, are the worlds biggest group of organic, naturally occurring compounds found in plants. Yes that's right, they're everywhere. Terpenes are the major component of essential oils in plants, and give them unique and distinct aromas and flavors that we smell every day.

Common plants with impressive terpenes are tea, thyme, lavender, mint, hemp, Spanish sage, and citrus fruits (e.g., lemon, orange, mandarin). Terpenes have a multitude of medicinal uses which makes them a common ingredient in naturopathic and well-known medicines. 

It's thought that terpenes evolved to both protect plants from predators and germs along with attracting desirable animals that could help spread their seeds. 

Science has now been able to extract and isolate terpenes so they can be used in many products such as shampoos, body oils, perfumes, medicines and foods.

One common mistake is that people think the term terpene and terpenoid are interchangable. Well, I have news for you--they're not. A terpene is the natural form of the compound when they are still in a live or recently living plant. Once the plant is dried and oxidizes, the terpene slightly changes chemical form and becomes a terpenoid.

5 Ways To Increase Terpenes Organically in Flower:

It's actually not very hard to increase terpene production in your plants. Let's go over 5 easy ways to accomplish this in your garden.

1. Select your genetics (AKA cultivar or strain) based on terpene profiles

Plants can varry widely. Depending on your terpene goals, it's good to do your research to find the strains with the terpenes you're looking for. At the bottom of this article is a list of the common terpenes along with their therapeutic properties. You will want to cross reference those terpenes as you pick your strain. Let's say we are looking for a strain that may help fight inflammation. Both myrcene and limonene have some evidence that they have anti-inflammatory properties. We may want to choose a strain high in myrcene and limonene. 

Websites such as leafly.com can help you find the terpene profiles of certain medicinal plants. They offer charts showing the primary terpenes, like this:

2. Ensure you have strong light levels

It doesn't matter if you have everything perfect in your garden if your light levels are too low. One of the best ways to make sure you have proper light levels is by using a light meter that measures PPFD, also known as micromoles. In Veg you will want a minimum of 500 PPFD and in flower you will want a minimum of 900 PPFD. Without having your light levels near or above those levels, your plant simply does not have enough photosynthetic energy to boost its oil and terpene production. 

3. Use supplemental UV lights.

UV light, when used at the right intensity, can be a great way to increase your plants terpene and oil production. Having low levels of UV light introduced to your plant gives it the response of producing more resin and oils so it can shield itself from the slightly harmful UV rays. Biologically, we're gaming the system by adding UV to our grow.

At this point, most growers have moved to using LEDs. Many companies know about the UV benefits and started offering UV add-on lights to their LED fixtures. These companies include: Gavita, Iluminar, Growers Choice, HLG and California Lightworks.

4. Drop your temperatures in the last week of flower

This is a trick that is relatively well known with the medicinal plant cultivating community, yet studies to prove its validity have yet to come out--for obvious reasons. The goal is to try to drop your temperatures by around 5-10 F in the last week of flower to help increase oil production because it signals to the plant that winter is quickly coming and it needs to produce its essential oils now or perish. Many growers swear by this method. We think it's probably good to run a side by side at your own grow, assumign you have the ability to. 

5. Use terpene enhancing nutrients and additives. We review the top 3.

The easiest way to increase your terpene profile, assuming you have a favorable growing environment, is to use a nutrient additive that enhances terpene and essential oil production. We have reviewed all of the information to bring you the top 3 starting with the best:

# 1 Best Terpene Enhancing Nutrient Additive: FlaVUH by Ventana Plant Science

FlaVUH by Ventana Plant Science is the best terpene enhancing nutrient additive with a proprietary polyaspartic acid polymer that was reverse engineered from the shells of mollusks. Talk about a mouthful. This unique nutrient additive has been studied by Universities in both the US and Canada on medicinal and edible plants to increase their essential oil production. One commercial facility side-by-side showed an increase in terpene production of 118% over the control. Nothing else has hit the market with a product as effective at increasing terpenes as FlaVUH, so therefore it takes our number one spot.

Ventana Plant Science (VPS) FlaVUH supports plant nutrient assimilation and phytochemical production. VPS's flavor, cannabinoid, and terpene enhancing FlaVUH are designed with Nature in mind while incorporating the latest advancements in essential oil production technology. The VUH of FlaVUH stands for Volatile Unsaturated Hydrocarbons, otherwise known as terpenes--the primary aromatic and secondary psychoactive compounds of medicinal plants. VPS FlaVUH incorporates a proprietary, biodegradable nutrient-enhancing amino acid polymer that promotes nutrient uptake while decreasing salt buildup.

 

# 2 Best Terpene Enhancing Nutrient Additive: Terpinator by Rhizoflora

Terpinator is the original terpene enhancing fertilizer additive designed to improve terpene concentration in your plants. Terpinator is the result of years of trials by a dedicated team of professional cultivators who wanted just a bit more from their harvests. More taste, more aroma – no matter the plant. They knew that the key to getting the results they were looking for was in the terpenes – the building blocks of the essential oils found in most plants and flowers.

  1. Terpinator 0-0-4 Terpene Enhancer
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# 3 Best Terpene Enhancing Nutrient Additive: Terpenez by Grow Solutions

Grow Solutions Terpenez 0-0-0 Essential Oil Intensifier is blended in-house in California, USA from the finest botanical inputs currently available. Versatile in its application, Grow Solutions Terpenez 0-0-0 Essential Oil Intensifier is recommended most during flush as part of your standard 11-14 day flush regimen but can be applied at a diluted rate throughout your flowering cycle for advanced results.

 
  1. Grow Solutions Terpenez 0-0-0 Essential Oil Intensifier
    Grow Solutions Terpenez 0-0-0 Essential Oil Intensifier
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List of Terpenes and Their Effects

PINENE
Remember that fresh piney scent that we were talking about before? Yes, the blame is on one of the members of the pinene family. There are two structural isomers of pinene found in nature: α-Pinene and β-Pinene. As the name suggests, both bicyclic monoterpenes are essential constituents of pine resin, but they’re pretty different in terms of scent. 

Aroma:

  • Alpha-Pinene: Crisp, zest, fresh pine, earthy, spicy
  • Beta-Pinene: Herbal, woody-green pine-like smell. It also occurs naturally in rosemary, parsley, dill, basil, and rose.
    Effects: Pinene is anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, reduces memory loss related to THC, promotes alertness, and acts as a bronchodilator (opens the respiratory passageways).  There is also evidence that the presence of pinene amplifies the pain treatment potency while easing inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, asthma, arthritis, Crohn’s disease, or even fungal and bacterial infections. 

Boiling Points: 155 °C

Strains: Different strains like Kona Gold, Blue Dream, Jack Herer, Strawberry Cough, Island Sweet Skunk, Dutch Treat, and Romulan contain pinene.

BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE
Black pepper, cinnamon, oregano, and cloves; Beta-caryophyllene is the one that brings the characteristic spiciness to your life. If you have an excellent strain with some peppery notes, it’s likely thanks to this terpene.

Aroma: Citrus, Spice, Pepper, Earthy

Effects: This terpene is known for being the only one with the unique ability to bind directly to CB-2 receptors in the endocannabinoid system. Thanks to this amazing feature, it regulates pain sensations effectively and eases inflammatory processes, making it useful to treat osteoarthritis. 

Moreover, its gastroprotective activity promotes healthy digestion and aids colitis. Likewise, its antiseptic, antibacterial, antiproliferative, antibiotic, and antifungal properties may enhance wound healing. Due to Caryophyllene’s anti-anxiety and antioxidant qualities, it’s also used to help with diabetes, liver fibrosis, cerebral ischemia, anxiety, depression, and Alzheimer-like diseases. 

Boiling Points: 245.3° C. However, users recommend setting the vape low, at 130° C

Strains: Girl Scout Cookies, Gorilla Glue #4, OG Kush, Super Silver Haze, Skywalker, and Rock Star are excellent recreational, high-caryophyllene options. If you prefer to hang lucid and keep the clarity, savor our Bubba Kush and Suver Haze and enjoy its peppery notes. 

HUMULENE
Beers and hemp have one thing in common, and that’s α-Humulene. Also known as α-caryophyllene, this terpene is the monocyclic sesquiterpene responsible for giving that hoppy type of smell to strains. You can find it naturally occurring in hops, ginseng, sage, clove, basil, and hemp, predominantly in energizing and uplifting varieties.  

Aroma: Woody, Hoppy, Spicy, Herbal, Earthy.

Effects: Anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving properties, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, and appetite suppressant.

Boiling Points: 106 to 107 °C

Strains: Bring the calm and feel the warm hug of Humulene’s woody aroma by lighting up a Sour Special Sauce Preroll. White Widow, Headband, Girl Scout Cookies, Sour Diesel, Pink Kush, Legendary OG, and Skywalker OG. 

LIMONENE
This terpene squeezes all your sour problems with its happy, citrusy aroma,  awakening vibe, and bright energy. It’s naturally found in citrus fruit rinds, rosemary, juniper, peppermint and frequently added in medicine, food and perfume, and citrus house cleaning solutions. Limonene is the second most abundant terpene in all strains.

Aroma: It has a fresh lemon and orange rind aroma with subtle hints of spice. It has a solid citrus odor and bitter taste.

Effects: Limonene is known for being an excellent mood-enhancer with anti-anxiety, anti-depressive, and stress-relief effects. Its uplifting effects make high-limonene strains excellent choices for daytime productivity. Along with its antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-carcinogenic properties, Limonene also aids weight loss and bronchitis. In addition, it treats gastrointestinal disorders like acid reflux or heartburn and helps with gallstone eradication.

Boiling Points: If you are vaping a high-limonene strain, make sure that the vape’s temperature that you set is below 176 °C. This way, you’ll reach Limonene’s boiling point to release off all its citrusy scent and flavor.  

Strains: Strains that have “lemon” or “sour” in their name, like Sour G CBG, Sour Space Candy, and Super Lemon Haze, are usually rich in Limonene. Other High-Limonene strains are Lifter, Hot Blonde, O.G. Kush, Durban Poison, Jack Herer, Wedding Cake, Do-Si-Do, and Jack the Ripper.

MYRCENE
Meet the leading hemp-derived terpene of all. Not only is myrcene the most abundant terpene in hemp (65% of presence), but it also plays a significant role in deciding whether a strain is going to be an upbeat Sativa or a relaxing Indica. When a variety contains more than 0.5% of this terpene, it leans to the sedative side. Besides hemp, hops, mangoes, bay leaves, thyme, and lemongrass contain high levels of myrcene. 

Aroma: Pungent, dank earthy flavor, with musky notes. Moreover, it has a tropical fruity, red grape-like aroma with citrus hints.

Effects: Sedative and muscle relaxant. Myrcene aids depression and induces sleep. It also has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties and helps reduce inflammation plus chronic pain, which is why it’s usually recommended as a supplement during cancer treatments. 

Boiling Points: If you’re vaping a high-myrcene strain, make sure that you bring your vape temperature down to below 167°C. Then, bring up the temperature to release that delicious mangoey type of flavor and effect.

Strains: Within our CBD garden, most of the flowers burst in myrcene. The mangoey Pineapple Haze, Hawaiian Haze, Cat’s Meow, and Hot Blonde are excellent examples that you can try. If you seek rich-THC strains packed with ample amounts of this relaxing terpene, Skunk XL, White Widow, and Special Kush should be the chosen ones.

LINALOOL
Lavender oil has been used and cherished for centuries for its unmistakable aroma and myriad benefits. Studies suggest it may help relieve stress, chronic pain, high blood pressure, and asthma. Most of these properties are due to linalool, which is its major terpene. 

So, if you have ever had a lavender lotion, soap, or perhaps cleaning solution, then you have been in touch with this lovely terpene without even know it. Besides Lavender, Linalool it’s also found in mint, cinnamon, fungi, citrus, laurels, birch, coriander, and rosewood.

Aroma: Floral, lavender, citrus, candy, with hints of fresh spice.

Effects: Sleep aid agent with sedative, relaxing, and calming effects. It has anesthetic, anti-anxiety, anti-depressant, and anti-psychotic properties. Linalool lifts your mood, strengthens the immune system, eases stress, relieves reflux, pain, and inflammation while reduces muscle spasms and seizures. Not only has antifungal and antibacterial qualities but it also can be used as an antiparasitic agent, making it one of the most complete compounds of this terpenes list.

Boiling Points: Linalool comes out at a higher temperature; it boils at 198 °C.

Strains: To have a bite of linalool’s happy calm, check out strains like Lavender, Master Kush, Pink Kush, Amnesia Haze, OG Shark, and LA Confidential.

TERPINOLENE
Terpinolene rarely leads a strain’s terpene profile but undoubtedly plays a crucial role in defining its taste and smell. 

In terms of aroma, Terpinolene has it all. This versatile terpene carries various fragrances, from an inviting fresh pine herbal scent to an enticing floral bouquet with citrusy notes. It’s the primary terpene found in oregano, marjoram, cumin, nutmeg, apples, lilac, some citrus rinds, and conifers.

Aroma: Floral, pinewood, with herbal subtle notes and lime.

Effects: This terpene has antioxidant, immune-modulating, and anti-biologic properties, such as anti-tumor, antibacterial, and antifungal qualities. Terpinolene is also a sedative agent used for the treatment of insomnia. Moreover, scientists have found that this terpene may have a positive effect on cardiovascular diseases. 

Boiling Points: 186 °C

Strains: Our CBD-rich Super Sour Space Candy, Sour Space Candy, and Pineapple Haze are packed with high amounts of this multifaceted terpene. Terpinolene is also present in elevated levels in THC strains like the legendary Jack Herer strain, Ghost Train Haze, Chernobyl, Dutch Treat, XJ-13, and Golden Pineapple.

TERPINEOL
Terpineol is present in more than 150 plants and natural oils like lime blossoms, eucalyptus sap, sage, pine trees, and lilacs. Not to be confused with terpinolene,  it’s commonly used in the industry for perfumes, cosmetics, lotions, soaps, and candles due to its lovely, pleasant scent. Its most common form is alpha-terpineol (α-Terpineol).

Aroma: Floral, lilac-like, apple blossom scent, with citrus nuances and piney hints. Some users describe that Terpineol tastes like anise and mint. 

Effects: Terpineol exhibits a wide range of therapeutic qualities. Between the most significant properties of this primary terpene, we find anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects that ease painful acute or chronic diseases. Moreover, its antioxidant and antitumor properties make Terpineol a helpful agent that can help fight certain types of cancer, including breast, lung, prostate, ovarian cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia. 

Besides these qualities, it possesses antimicrobial activity, induces vasodilation, lowers arterial pressure, and acts as a sedative, relaxing agent. Nevertheless, Terpineol is irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes. It is recommended to avoid contact with skin and eyes and ingestion because it may produce hemorrhagic gastritis.

Boiling Points: 219 °C.

Strains: Multiple strains like Purple Gas Hemp, Girl Scout Cookies, Jack Herer, Peach Mint Kush, and the Haze Berry Strain often test high in Terpineol.

COMMON SECONDARY TERPENES 
​​Despite not being so popular, secondary terpenes play a significant role in the synergistic effect that directly impacts how the body assimilates all the therapeutic load that hemp provides. When combined with other primary terpenes and cannabinoids, these enhance their potency and improve their health benefits. 

SABINENE
Caryophyllene is not the only terpene that contributes to the spiciness of black pepper. Sabinene is also responsible for the zest of the “king of the spices.” This natural bicyclic monoterpene has the appearance of a clear colorless to pale yellow liquid and occurs naturally in a variety of plants, including Holm Oak and Norway Spruce. In addition, it is the major component of carrot seed oil, nutmeg, and bay laurel. 

Aroma: Woody-herbaceous (pine-like), oily-peppery, with camphoraceous and terpenic nuances. Its warm aroma is complemented by an enticing citrus taste with tropical fruity notes.

Effects: Sabinene carries a series of therapeutic benefits thanks to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancer, and antifungal properties. Moreover, many use it as a calming agent in problematic skin conditions and wound management. On the other hand, this terpene is also helpful for digestive problems.

Boiling Points:163 to 165 °C

Strains: Do you want that spicy bite that leaves your throat sore? Haze strains such as Red Haze, Super Lemon Haze, and Super Silver Haze have higher monoterpene concentrations on their terpene profile than others. Harle-Tsu, aka Harlequin Tsunami, Grand Master, Kush, Mimosa, Chocolate Thai, Mendo Purps, and Wabanaki are excellent choices too.

OCTANOL
According to The Green Elephant book, Octanol is one of the primary terpenes found in frankincense, the aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae. The simplest and most influential member of the Octanol family is 1-Octanol. 

Aroma: Oily, sweet, slightly herbaceous taste, similar to Bitter Almond, burnt matches, with floral undertones. 1-Octanol has a sharp fatty-citrus odor, reminiscent of fresh orange rose fragrance. 

Effects: Octanol has potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. When used in conjunction with pinene and linalool, it has a powerful anti-inflammatory entourage effect. Research has shown that Octanol-1 may help control essential tremors (ET) and other types of involuntary neurological tremors characterized by involuntary rhythmic contractions and relaxation of certain muscle groups. 

Boiling Points: 195°C

Strains: Currently, there’s no information available about octanol strains on the market.

ISOPULEGOL
Do you enjoy the refreshing minty side of plants like eucalyptus, parsley, lemongrass, or lemon balm? If yes, then you might want to thank Isopulegol. Within the complexity and appeal of the plants, scientists found this secondary terpene, contributing with its subtle minty scent. Due to its unique cooling property, Isopulegol has earned the leading role as an additive in cosmetics, soaps, and other personal care products.

Aroma: Fresh, mint, medicinal, and herbal.

Effects: As a menthol’s chemical precursor, Isopulegol is an effective treatment for headaches. It possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, along with gastroprotective properties and a highly potent antiviral activity. In addition, Isopulegol has proved to be an anxiolytic and a good anticonvulsant in animals. 

Boiling Points: 212 °C

Strains: If you are looking forward to trying Isopulegol’s tingly feeling in your nose, strains like Kosher Tangie, Headband, or OG Kush are the ones to purchase. 

CEDRENE
Adding an appealing dimension to the scent profile comes Cedrene. Even though this secondary terpene is found at low levels in hemp, it emits a warm solid odor with a fresh scent profile. Cedrene is also present in essential oils derived from cedar, juniper, and cypress wood. It is classified as a sesquiterpene, meaning that its chemical structure is less volatile than other terpenes. 

Aroma: ​​fresh, woody, and sweet scent.

Effects: Cedrene boasts impressive anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects while acting as a neuroprotective agent. Moreover, diverse cultures have valued cedarwood oil for its curative applications. Its astringent, antiseptic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties have been helpful to disinfect wounds and heal acne. 

Moreover, Cedrene has also been associated with anticancer activity, especially when combined with cedrol, which can help to kill liver, lung, and oral cancer cells.

Boiling Points: 261–262 °C

Strains: Cultivars like Jet Fuel and Skyrunner have more discernible Cedrene notes. Other strains high in Cedrene are ​​Banana Split, Dank Rainbow from Boaz, Primal Punch from Boaz, and Planet of The Grapes.

CAMPHENE 
Who doesn’t love that damp woodland smell? If you’re into woody strains with subtle pine hints, this terpene is for you. Used in the 19th century as fuel for lamps, Camphene is the primary component of camphor tree oil. Besides being found in camphor, this bicyclic organic compound is present in citronella, ginger, lavender, neroli fragrance, and valerian. 

Aroma: Like Myrcene, Camphene is known for its earthy scent but enriched with citrus and minty nuances. Its earthy aroma is complemented by musky herbal, woodsy-like undertones that are reminiscent of fir needles.

Effects: This terpene possesses anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, and antioxidant properties, especially when mixed with vitamin C. Camphene has a positive impact on cardiovascular health, lowering cholesterol and triglycerides while maintaining healthy respiratory/bronchial passages. Finally, it has a healing effect on skin conditions like eczema, psoriasis, and athlete’s foot. For this reason, it’s widely used in conventional medicine as a topical. 

Boiling Points: Set your vape around 159 °C to unleash camphene’s fragrant aroma and health benefits 

Strains: ACDC, Mendocino Purps, Strawberry Banana, Banana Kush, Ghost OG, and OG Kush are great camphene strains.

GERANYL ACETATE
Make way for Geranyl Acetate, a monoterpene that seduces more than one with the intense floral and fruity fragrance that emanates. This terpene is a naturally occurring component in more than sixty essential oils like citronella, sassafras, lemongrass, geranium, and coriander. The cosmetic industry uses this aromatic oil in various toiletries and daily-use products due to its enticing fragrance.

Aroma: Floral aroma with fruity-forward notes, reminiscent of summer fruit and roses. This terpene is prevalent due to its pear-like, banana, apple, and peach notes. Moreover, Geranyl Acetate can evoke comforting woody-like scents with subtle herbaceous notes. 

Effects: Like other terpenes, Geranyl Acetate directly interacts with our pain receptors, easing pain and inflammation. This wonderful monoterpene has practical antimicrobial effects in fighting some types of bacteria and chronic fungal infections, too. 

Geranyl Acetate acts synergistically with other antifungal medications, making them more effective in fighting fungi such as Candida Albicans. On the other hand, it helps to reduce stress and depression while promoting relaxation. Its lipophilic property generates a series of antitumor effects that can effectively treat certain specific types of cancer.

Boiling Points: 245 °C

Strains: Enjoy the soft floral and fruity scent of Geranyl Acetate in strains like Hawaiian Haze, Sour Space Candy, Suver Haze, Cherry Wine, Space Invader, Elektra, OG Kush, and Clementine.

CAMPHOR
If your strain has a solid minty aroma with spicy, woody notes, then its shiny trichomes may be exuding Camphor. This secondary terpene enriches the complexity of every variety where it is present. It’s distilled from the Camphor Laurel Tree, though it is also found in spiced fruit, vegetables, and herbs such as rosemary, raspberry, apricot, and ginger.  

Aroma: Herbal and spicy, framed by minty notes. Earthy and woody undertones, with a reminiscent naphthalene aroma. 

Effects: Like other terpenes with a strong menthol-like aroma, Camphor improves respiratory function, relieves breathing congestion, and induces an expectorant action when inhaled. Traditional Chinese healers use it to alleviate muscle aches because of its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and sedative effects. 

Its refreshing fragrance provides stress relief and reduces anxiety, which is a potent property that enriches the effects of CBD in hemp strains. Likewise, its uplifting energy stimulates metabolism, boosting good digestion and circulation. Moreover, it has significant antimicrobial properties. 

Camphor oil can be used as a topical remedy to prevent and treat skin infections. It is also an effective insect repellent. Finally, but not less important, this monoterpene improves libido by acting on the part of your brain responsible for sexual desire.

Boiling Points: 209 °C

Strains: If you’re looking for strains with a touch of Camphor, we recommend Golden Haze, K13-Haze, and Amnesia Haze.

PULEGONE
Let us introduce you to an essential member of the minty terpene team. Like Camphor and Isopulegol, Pulegone provides the sweetness and cooling sensation of mint for each plant and product in which it is present. Although it is a secondary terpene, its dominant qualities enrich the flavor and aroma profile of high-pulegone strains. 

Aroma: Pulegone has a pleasant odor similar to pennyroyal, peppermint, and camphor.

Effects: Pulgone has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties that make it ideal for treating chronic pain diseases like arthritis. It promotes muscle relaxation, stress, and anxiety relief. Like Camphor and other minty terpenes, Pulegone dilates the respiratory tract, unplugs your sinuses, and offers an expectorant effect, making it an excellent remedy to treat common colds and coughs. 

Moreover, this secondary terpene prevents damage to the cells by free radicals due to its antioxidant effects. In this way, it inhibits the progression of cancer.

Boiling Points: 224 °C

Strains: Enjoy the tingly minty scent of this naturally occurring organic compound with two valuable members of the Kush Legacy, The legendary OG Kush, and the Indica-goddess Pink Kush.

PHELLANDRENE
An interesting fact about Phellandrene it’s that it was previously confused with Pinene and Limonene back in the early 1900s. Before their discovery, the phellandrenes were often misidentified with these primary terpenes due to their similarities. Scientists realize that this terpene represented two distinct isomeric compounds instead of one only after the compounds were tested in eucalyptus oil.

Since then, we have used it in holistic medicine thanks to the variety of therapeutic properties it presents. Although most prominent in eucalyptus, Phellandrene also exists in the essential oils of various plants like mint, dill, black pepper, cinnamon, parsley, pine, lavender, water fennel, and ginger grass.

Aroma: Minty, peppery, woody, with subtle citrus hints. 

Effects: Phellandrene has been a staple in holistic Eastern medicine for its anti-fungal and antibacterial properties for ages. Many think it is a great energy-booster, pain-reliever, and mood-lifter with anti-inflammatory properties.

When combined with limonene, Alpha Phellandrene has antidepressive and antihyperalgesic effects. Moreover, this monoterpene has the ability to reduce the proliferation of cancer cells in the human liver. More recent studies showed that there might be adequate comparability in leukemia models.

Boiling Points: ​​171 °C

Strains: A curious fact about this monoterpene is that it is commonly found in high-terpinolene strains, like Sage and Ace of spades. Alpha-phellandrene has been also detected in strains like Goji OG, Red Headed Stranger, Jack Herer, Trainwreck, and Dogwalker OG.

BORNEOL
Over 500 years ago, Asian cultures pioneered the use of different terpenes in their holistic treatments. One of these terpenes is Borneol, an amazing bicyclic monoterpene, considered a staple of Asian traditional medicine due to its array of therapeutic effects. Borneol was initially derived from Borneo Camphor’s trunk, but it can be synthetically created today through turpentine oil or camphor. You can also find it in nature in many plant species like rosemary, mint, and camphor. ​​

Aroma: Borneol is known for emitting a calming minty herbal, spicy wood, camphor-like aroma with earthy undertones. It has a bitter flavor with a slight burning taste.

Effects: Borneol facilitates digestion, improves cardiovascular health, treats bronchial symptoms, helps the body heal wounds, and acts as an effective anti-inflammatory and pain reliever. For this reason, it has been used through the years as a topical pain reliever,  perfect for rheumatic diseases. 

Moreover, it acts like a potent anticoagulant and anti-fibrosis agent. Borneol has shown antioxidative and antiviral properties that might inhibit the herpes simplex virus type 1. It also inhibits the growth and development of fungus while stimulating the immune system.

Boiling Points: 213 °C

Strains: ​​Do you love woody strains? Check Amnesia Haze, Golden Haze, and K13 Haze. These varieties are packed with higher concentrations of Borneol and Camphor.

ISOBORNEOL
Isoborneol is the exo-isomer of borneol. Put in simple words, these compounds are the same but with a slight difference in the atomic arrangements and properties.

Besides hemp, Isoborneol is also found in citrus peel oils, nutmeg, ginger, and thyme. It is commonly used as a flavoring agent to bake a carrot cake, gingerbread cookie, or other spicy sweet desserts and as an additive to foods and beverages, such as orange and grape soda.

Aroma: Sweet woody aroma with fruity and spicy undernotes.

Effects: This terpene has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antitumor, and neuroprotective properties. Like Borneol, it has a notable antiviral agent that inhibits the herpes simplex type 1 virus. Moreover, it has anticoagulant effects that could be beneficial for cardiovascular patients. A study performed on mice suggests that Isoborneol may also help with sleep due to its sedative effects when inhaled.

Boiling Points: 212-214 °C.

Strains: Currently, there’s no information available about Isoborneol strains on the market.

PHYTOL
Attention matcha-lovers, meet Phytol, the essential compound of green tea varieties, like sencha and matcha. This secondary terpene is also found in wild lettuce, citrus fruits, and of course, hemp. It’s known as a precursor in manufacturing synthetic vitamins E and K1 and for being a food additive.  

Aroma: Floral upfront with balsamic undertones.

Effects: Phytol it’s an excellent sedative with anticonvulsant and anti-anxiety effects. This secondary terpene acts like an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent that may alleviate chronic pain disorders like arthritis.

Due to its antioxidant and antitumor properties is a good candidate for the treatment or prevention of oxidative stress-mediated diseases like cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. 

Boiling Points: 204 °C

Strains: Some strains empowered by the fragrant aroma of Phytol are Blue Genius, the glorious Sour Diesel aka “Sour D,” the cheesy OG Cheese, I-95, and OG Kush.

VALENCENE
Picture yourself in a large field full of Valencia orange trees. Take a deep breath and hold it. The bright and sweet citrusy aroma that you capture is thanks to Valencene.

Aroma: Sweet, citrusy aroma and flavor with notes of fresh herbs or freshly cut wood.  

Effects: It is known that Valencene has an outstanding ability to reduce inflammation, fight skin cancer, and potentially improves atopic dermatitis and itching behavior. It has anti-allergic effects and acts as a bronchodilator. It’s an excellent mood-enhancer with energizing and uplifting effects.

Boiling Points: 123 °C.

Strains: You can find Valencene in orangy varieties like Tangie and Agent Orange. Other popular high-valencene strains are Race Fuel, Alpha Blue (Dream Diesel, DD), Dark Blue Dream, Cetrix, Lucky Charms, Alien Dawg, XJ-13, Green Ribbon, and Black Jack.

FENCHOL
Even though Fenchol is not found in as many varieties of hemp as are primary terpenes like pinene, its qualities complement other terpene’s effects and enrich the dominant aroma with enticing nuances. 

You can find Fenchol naturally occurring as a secondary terpene in plants and flowers with a piney-like fragrance, like basil, aster, and hemp. Moreover, Fenchol is widely used in the perfume industry for its uplifting and refreshing scent.

Aroma: You can recognize fenchol by its woody, citrus scent, framed by refreshing pine hints, aromatic camphor notes, and subtle earthy nuances.

Effects: This monoterpene contains antioxidants that help to boost your immune system and fight illnesses from common colds to cancer. Besides, Fenchol’s great uplifting energy and analgesic effects will get you moving. Other medicinal properties include a broad antimicrobial and antibacterial potential. 

Boiling Points: 201 °C

Strains: There are few strains in which Fenchol is present at an average percentage, such Banana Kush, OG Kush, and the skunky Sunset Sherbet.

OTHER COMMON TERPENES
We find strength through unity, and terpenes are aware of that. Behind every essence, either artificial or natural, there is a complex and unique combination of terpenes. 

Even though primary aromatic compounds lead the dominant scent and flavor of each strain, the subtle nuances of the following terpenes make the difference and enrich our smoking experience. 

BERGAMOTENE
Within the less common terpenes, we find Bergamotene. It is named after the bergamot plant, the primary source of Bergamotene’s most common isomer, along with carrots and cumin. 

One word isn’t enough to describe this sesquiterpene. Its complex aroma, different isomers, role as a pheromone for insects, and wide range of effects make Bergamotene incredibly fascinating. 

Aroma: Bergamotene has a woody fragrance with a spicy edge that distinguishes it from other woody terpenes. In terms of flavor, it has a classic sweet-yet-tart, citrus taste, with a unique floral touch. 

Effects: Bergamotene’s aroma soothes the nerves, reduces tension, eases anxiety and depression. Besides this enlivening effect on mood, this sesquiterpene has anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antioxidant properties.

Boiling Points: 259 to 260 °C.

Strains: To enjoy the peppery smell, the fresh taste, and the health benefits of Bergamotene, we recommend choosing among the uplifted mood of Lovelace, the creative boost from Lemon Haze, or the mellow relaxation from White Recluse.

ALPHA-BISABOLOL
Do you have time to meet an absolutely lovely terpene? Then, keep reading down below because Bisabolol is the sweetest terpene of this ultimate list. When talking about bisabolol, we refer to a lesser-known monoterpene that adds valuable health benefits with a subtle, pleasing aroma touch. 

The best place to find this terpene is products containing chamomile or chamomile essential oil. In case you’re feeling curious about this compound, visit our full Bisabolol article.  

Aroma: Subtle sweet fruity-floral scent reminiscent of apples, honey, and chamomile, with citrus, tangy notes, and a peppery touch. Those with a keen nose may be able to detect nutty hints with herbal undertones and just a trace of coconut.

Effects: It has a range of potential benefits, including potent anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties with analgesic effects. It is the best cosmetics industry ally for being a great natural panthenol source and having anti-aging, anti-irritant, and skin healing properties, which accelerates wound healing. 

All these features make this monoterpene an excellent moisturizer and soothing agent that protects and boosts the repair of the skin barrier while disinfecting and killing several microorganisms. It also exhibits gastroprotective antispasmodic,  drug permeation, vermifuge properties, and cancer cells antiproliferative features. 

Boiling Points: 153 °C

Strains: Bisabolol is only present in trace amounts in most strains. However, it is most likely present in floral varieties like our Cherry Blossom, Lavender, Jasmine, Master Kush, and Cotton Candy Kush. Moreover, you can find  Bisabolol in the terpene profile of strains like Sour Lifter, White CBG, Pink Kush, Headband, OG Shark, and ACDC.

EUCALYPTOL 
If you’re familiar with the fresh aroma that eucalyptus trees emanate and the health benefits that these have, then you perfectly know what eucalyptol is.  Also known as cineole, it is one of the frequently investigated monoterpenes for its health benefits.

You can find considerable amounts of eucalyptol in rosemary, tea tree, camphor laurel, bay leaves, cardamom, and of course, hemp.

Aroma: Eucalyptol has a fresh, strong, soothing, minty fragrance with a spicy yet cooling taste.

Effects: This terpene has a potent analgesic with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and insect-repelling properties. Scientists also suspect that eucalyptol may help to treat asthma and lower blood pressure. 

Other associated properties include memory retention, promising cognitive learning improvement, and uplifting effects that might be helpful in Alzheimer’s treatment. 

Boiling Points: 172 °C

Strains: There are not a lot of specimens with high levels of eucalyptol, but there are a handful of examples with considerable amounts of this great terpene. Super Silver Haze, Headband, Bubba Kush, and Girl Scout Cookies are good examples that you can try.

GERANIOL
Buzzing into this great list of terpenes comes Geraniol, a monoterpenoid with a hard-to-forget aroma and flavor. Believe it or not, this floral terpene is not only secreted by plants. In fact, bees produce it through their olfactory glands to mark the flowers that contain nectar and locate the entrances to their hives.

Besides hemp, geraniol exists in lemons, geranium, and tobacco. It also is the primary component of rose oil, palmarosa oil, and citronella oil. Due to its rose-like scent, it’s usually used in aromatic bath products, perfumes, and body lotions. 

Aroma: Geraniol will seduce you with its rose grass notes, peaches, and plums.  

Effects: Geraniol is more than just an enticing scent. Studies have shown Geraniol‘s great potential as a neuroprotectant agent with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant,  antidepressant effects.

Boiling Points: 230 °C (446 °F; 503 K)

Strains: It’s present in strains like Amnesia Haze, Great White Shark, Afghani, Headband, Island Sweet Skunk, OG Shark, and Master Kush.

FARNESENE
Farnesene is written with F, for fascinating, as its aromatic profile and effects. This sesquiterpene is popularly known as the compound responsible for generating the characteristic smell of green apple skin. Still, it is also found in ginger, grapes, pears, potatoes, quince, basil, and hops. 

Aroma: Farnesene has a sweet, warm, woody fragrance, framed by fresh green vegetative notes, similar to celery and hay with mild herbaceous nuances. This terpene gives plants a tart flavor with somewhat fatty and tropical fruity after-notes.

Effects: This curious terpene acts as an excellent sedative and muscle relaxant, with calming effects. It also has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antispasmodic properties. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that farnesene has neuroprotective properties and may help prevent certain types of cancer.

Boiling Points: 124-125 °C 

Strains: The fascinating farnesene is present in modest amounts in strains like Dutch Treat Haze, Cherry Punch, and White Rhino.

OCIMENE
More than a fragrant terpene, Ocimene is a powerful antimicrobial agent. Plants with comprehensive defense systems show a high concentration of a-Ocimene. Besides hemp, it’s also found in bergamot, allspice, basil, mangoes, orchids, mint, and kumquats.

Aroma: This unique terpene is responsible for sweet, herbaceous, and woodsy aromas with tropical undertones. Both alpha and beta isomers have the same fragrance and taste.

Effects: It is an immune system supporter thanks to its antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, decongestant, and potent antiseptic effects. This sweet herbal terpene will provide you with uplifting energy while stimulating your brain and boosting your creativity and motivation. 

Boiling Points: Ocimene has a shallow boiling point, being around 66°C. If you want to enjoy Ocimene’s features, make sure you set your vape correctly.

Strains: Pinene and myrcene are great pals of Ocimene. Together, they display the best of its effects. If you have tried White Fire OG, Sour Diesel, Clementine, Amnesia, Dutch Treat, Dream Queen, J1, Golden Pineapple, Purple Haze, or Jack Herer before, then you might have tried Ocimene without even knowing.

NEROLIDOL
Do you remember the intense aroma that jasmine, lavender, and lemongrass emanates? If you do, you can thank Nerolidol for it. This sesquiterpene is also found in oranges, ginger, tea tree, lady of the night orchids, and of course, hemp.

Aroma: Nerolidol has a spicy woody aroma with a fruity, citrus, floral background that reminds of a mixture of rose, citrus, and apples.

Effects: This sesquiterpene has antiparasitic, antifungal, antibacterial, soothing, and anti-anxiety effects. It enhances skin penetration, facilitating a more effective topical absorption. These features and their antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory properties, and fragrant scent make nerolidol helpful in skin products.

Boiling Points: 122 °C 

Strains: Strains like Bubba Kush, Island Sweet Skunk, Jack Herer, Black Lime Reserve, Blue Dream, Chemdawg, and Skywalker OG are rich in nerolidol. 

GUAIOL
Like pinene and terpinolene, guaiol has a fresh pine fragrance. This sesquiterpenoid alcohol it’s also found in Xylopia aethiopica, pine, and cypress trees. In hemp, Indica strains typically contain more guaiol than Sativas.

Aroma: Woody, fresh, mint, piney-like aroma reminiscent of evergreen trees. 

Effects: Besides boosting hemps’ healing and therapeutic effects, guaiol is associated with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and antibacterial properties. Many have traditionally used guaiol as a treatment of bronchitis, asthma, stomachaches, and dysenteric conditions. 

Boiling Points: Guaiol needs to vaporize at 288 °C to display its effects and aroma.

Strains: Our garden grows two different strains high in guaiol: Bubba Kush and White CBG. Other guaiol-rich strains are Chocolope, Blue Kush, ACDC, Cinex, Plushberry, Pennywise, Fruit Loops, Jillybean, Golden Pineapple, and Chernobyl. 

DELTA-3 CARENE
If you look closely enough, you’ll see that Nature has it all. Carene is a vivid example of that. This bicyclic monoterpene is responsible for the intense, sweet, and citrusy aroma of cypress trees, which have substantial amounts of it, followed by other plants like rosemary, basil, bell peppers, cedar, turpentine, and pine.

Aroma: Sweet piney aroma with lemon nuances and musk, earthy undertones.

Effects: When it comes to the medical side of carene, it seems to be most beneficial in healing broken bones. It’s widely considered a natural antihistamine, analgesic, and helpful anti-inflammatory agent in diseases like fibromyalgia, arthritis, and osteoporosis. 

On the other hand, Carene possibly promotes memory retention, stimulates mental sharpness, focus, and concentration, which can be helpful for patients with Alzheimer’s disease.  

Boiling Points: 170–172 °C

Strains: This terpene is found most commonly in Indica strains, including AK-47, Arjan’s Ultra Haze, Jack Herer, OG Kush, Skunk #1, Super Silver Haze, and Super Lemon Haze, among others.

PHYTOL
Delicate and dainty with tiny flowers, jasmine is known worldwide for its unique tropical smell and pretty blossoms that attract bees. But only a few know that this charming, sweet floral fragrance it’s provided by the unpopular terpene called phytol. 

Effects: Scientists have studied Phytol for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory action. It acts as a sedative and anticonvulsant agent, reducing stress and anxiety while promoting healthy sleep patterns. It also has the potential as an antioxidant and antitumor agent.

Boiling Points: 204 °C

Strains: Enjoy phytol’s mellow floral and grassy taste with strains like Blue Genius, Sour Diesel, OG Cheese, I-95, and OG Kush. 

SABINENE
Fan of wine or whiskey? Sabinene joins this complete list of terpenes and effects since it is responsible for the earthy oak aromas that wine and whiskey makers love.

This bicyclic monoterpene occurs naturally in holm oak, Norwegian fir, nutmeg, among others. 

Aroma: Woody, spicy, pepper with citrus nuances.

Effects: Sabinene shows peculiar positive effects on our bodies, like anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal properties. It aids digestion, relieves arthritis, and prevents muscle atrophy. It also soothes skin conditions and eases signs of aging due to its anti-oxidative effects. 

Some studies show that Sabinene is an anticancer agent that can effectively fight the proliferation of malignant tumors related to leukemia.  

Boiling Points: 163.6 °C

Strains: You can’t wait to try a spicy, citrusy, piney strain? Sabinene’s at higher concentrations in haze strains like Super Silver Haze, Super Lemon Haze, or Red Haze. Other strains high in Sabinene are Harle-Tsu, aka Harlequin Tsunami, Meatbreath, Grand Master Kush, Mimosa, Chocolate Thai, Mendo Purps, and Wabanaki.

MENTHOL
Menthol is one of the most in-demand terpenes globally, with over 30,000 metric tons used every year. Although it can also be produced synthetically, this waxy, crystalline monoterpene occurs naturally in mint plants, including peppermint, spearmint, and hemp. 

Yes, some varieties produce in their trichomes low menthol amounts to defend themselves from plagues and infections. Many scientists have studied this terpene for years for its multiple health benefits, especially for its ability to reduce coughing and its analgesic action.

Aroma: fresh mint and spicy undertones characterize this terpene.

Effects: Among the most notable properties of this terpene, we find that menthol’s cooling and numbing properties can act as a potent analgesic, reducing acute pain and relaxing muscle tension. In addition, its anti-inflammatory effects can help to soothe away a wide range of painful conditions such as headaches and joint pain.

Unlike cigarettes, which use menthol as an additive, plants produce this refreshing terpene, which has the ability to reduce coughing, relieve throat irritation, helps clearing out the sinuses and ease other respiratory diseases like asthma. 

Boiling Points: 212-214 °C

Strains: You can find menthol in strains like ChemDog, Gelato 45, and Thor’s Hammer. Dozens of varieties contain menthol. Green Monster, Wonder Woman OG, Himalayan Gold, Cabbage Patch, and Space Needle are just a handful of menthol-rich strains on today’s market. 

TERPINENE
Terpinene is one of the main elements that give tea tree oil its medicinal properties. Its pleasant, fresh scent also makes it a frequent addition to natural cosmetics and skincare products. Also found in agave, coriander, Lebanese oregano, celery, lemon, grapes, cumin, ginger, pepper,  allspice, and cinnamon.

Aroma: Earthy aroma 

Alpha: Lemony-citrus, refreshing, herbal, woody, sweet
Gamma: Citrus, refreshing, herbal, woody, sweet
Effects: Terpinene possesses antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties and may exhibit antitumor effects.  It’s widely known for reducing indigestion, bloating, fatigue, abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhea, and colic, along with respiratory distress and loss of appetite. 

Boiling Points: 183 °C

Strains: Sentinel and Warwick #1 are two varieties that contain high concentrations of terpinene.

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